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Industrialization - An Economic and Social Revolution
The experience of Britain is used to show the basic characteristics of the Industrial Revolution. It is studied in terms of the economic and social upheavals to which it gave rise.


The Industrial Revolution - Internet Modern History Sourcebook

Industrial Revolution:  11 to 14 Years
A large collection of a variety of web sites appropriate to Cycle 1 study of the Industrial Revolution.

Causes for occurrence in Europe, Britain: Wikipedia Overview on Industrialization
"The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complex and remain a topic for debate."  This Wikipedia collects together several arguments as to why the Industrial Revolution started, innovations that were part of it, and the social effects of such major forces of change.

First Industrial Phase:  Resources for Themes at McCord Museum
"Selection of approximately 200 images provides a sample of the collections related to the first industrial phase that took place between the years 1840 and 1900, with a principal focus on Quebec. Three industry sectors of this first phase are portrayed: the wood industry (sawmills); light industries (sugar refineries, milk production, footwear and clothing factories, tobacco); and heavy industries (smelters and railway workshops)."  Click here.

Environmental History Timeline: Industrial Revolution: 1830 - 1890
The obvious connections between the B.A.L. Environmental Awareness and this content section on the Industrial Revolution are extended through this interesting collection of events that cover living conditions, smog, water pollution, and various efforts to address the problems of the day.


Cultural References


• Print, The Royal Stock Exchange (London) in 1847
• Illustration of the foundry of James Nasmyth, inventor of the steam hammer - What makes an engineer ;   Icons of Invention ; Steam Hammer Video - Edison Film)
• The Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith) - One of many e-texts, another, Wikipedia entry with photo
• Manifesto of the Communist Party (Marx) - Marxist.org version, with audio;   Answers.com references.
• Cotton spinning factory with mule-jennies  - Spinning Mule summary, picture, and activity ;   The Luddites' War on Industry

Elsewhere: It is important for students to be aware of the upheavals that industralization caused elsewhere in the world: United States, or France or Germany.

United States

General sites
United States at About.com
- Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers
- Was There an Industrial Revolution? Americans at Work Before the Civil War ( EDSITEment Lesson Plan with m any links and source documents)

Cultural References
- Rockefeller (Robber Baron LessonRockefellers American ExperienceWikipedia reference)
- Child labour in a textile factory
- The Emigrants(Gilbert Imlay)
- First cotton spinning mill at Pawtucket (America's Story: First Cotton Mill ; Today in History reference page)
- Mississippi river boat (PicturesIn context of other transportation developments)
- Railway aqueduct, Nashville (Example image)
- The Knights of Labour (U.S History.com reference ;   Original preamble from their modern site)  


• Contemplations(Victor Hugo), Germinal (Émile Zola)
• 1841 law forbidding child labour
• The Internationale
• Demonstration against May Day by factory owners, April 29, 1891


• Krupp factories in Essen
• Ruhr Valley
• Inquiry into the condition of the working class, series of articles by N.Wolff in the Breslauer Zeitung
• Krupp